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Appendix 1

USEPA Primary and Secondary Drinking Water Standards.

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Contaminant
MCLG1
MCL/TT1
Potential Health Effects
Sources
CryptosporidiumzeroTT 3Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)Human and fecal animal waste
Giardia lambliazeroTT3Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)Human and animal fecal waste
Heterotrophic plate countn/aTT3HPC has no health effects; it is an analytic method used to measure the variety of bacteria that are common in water. The lower the concentration of bacteria in drinking water, the better maintained the water system is.HPC measures a range of bacteria that are naturally present in the environment
LegionellazeroTT3Legionnaire's Disease, a type of pneumoniaFound naturally in water; multiplies in heating systems
Total Coliforms (including fecal coliform and E. Coli)zero5.0%4Not a health threat in itself; it is used to indicate whether other potentially harmful bacteria may be present5Coliforms are naturally present in the environment; as well as feces; fecal coliforms and E. coli only come from human and animal fecal waste.
Turbidityn/aTT3Turbidity is a measure of the cloudiness of water. It is used to indicate water quality and filtration effectiveness (e.g., whether disease-causing organisms are present). Higher turbidity levels are often associated with higher levels of disease-causing microorganisms such as viruses, parasites and some bacteria. These organisms can cause symptoms such as nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and associated headaches. Soil runoff
Viruses (enteric)zeroTT3Gastrointestinal illness (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, cramps)Human and animal fecal waste

Contaminant
MCLG1
MCL/TT1
Potential Health Effects
Sources
Bromatezero0.010Increased risk of cancerByproduct of drinking water disinfection
Chlorite0.81.0Anemia; infants & young children: nervous system effectsByproduct of drinking water disinfection
Haloacetic acids (HAA5)n/a60.060Increased risk of cancerByproduct of drinking water disinfection
Total Trihalomethanes (TTHMs)none70.10Liver, kidney or central nervous system problems; increased risk of cancerByproduct of drinking water disinfection

Contaminant
MCLG1
MCL/TT1
Potential Health Effects
Sources
Chloramines (as Cl2)MRDLG=41MRDL=4.01Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfort, anemiaWater additive used to control microbes
Chlorine (as Cl2)MRDLG=41MRDL=4.01Eye/nose irritation; stomach discomfortWater additive used to control microbes
Chlorine dioxide (as ClO2)MRDLG=0.81MRDL=0.81Anemia; infants & young children: nervous system effectsWater additive used to control microbes

Contaminant
MCLG1
MCL/TT1
Potential Health Effects
Sources
Antimony0.0060.006Increase in blood cholesterol; decrease in blood sugarDischarge from petroleum refineries; fire retardants; ceramics; electronics; solder
Arsenic070.010Skin damage or problems with circulatory systems, and may have increased risk of getting cancerErosion of natural deposits; runoff from orchards, runoff from glass & electronics production wastes
Asbestos(fiber >10)7 MFLIncreased risk of developing benign intestinal polypsDecay of asbestos cement in water mains; erosion of natural deposits
Barium22Increase in blood pressureDischarge of drilling wastes; discharge from metal refineries; erosion of natural deposits
Beryllium0.0040.004Intestinal lesions Discharge from metal refineries and coal-burning factories; discharge from electrical, aerospace, and defense industries
Cadmium0.0050.005Kidney damage Corrosion of galvanized pipes; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from metal refineries; runoff from waste batteries and paints
Chromium (total)0.10.1Allergic dermatitisDischarge from steel and pulp mills; erosion of natural deposits
Copper1.3TT8 Action Level=1.3Short term exposure: Gastrointestinal distressCorrosion of household plumbing systems; erosion of natural deposits
Cyanide (as free cyanide)0.20.2Nerve damage or thyroid problems Discharge from steel/metal factories; discharge from plastic and fertilizer factories
Fluoride4.04.0Bone disease (pain and tenderness of the bones); Children may get mottled teeth Water additive which promotes strong teeth; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from fertilizer and aluminum factories
LeadzeroTT8; Action Level=0.015Infants and children: Delays in physical or mental development; children could show slight deficits in attention span and learning abilitiesCorrosion of household plumbing systems; erosion of natural deposits
Mercury (inorganic)0.0020.002Kidney damageErosion of natural deposits; discharge from refineries and factories; runoff from landfills and croplands
Nitrate (measured as Nitrogen)1010Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrate in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome.Runoff from fertilizer use; leaching from septic tanks, sewage; erosion of natural deposits
Nitrite (measured as Nitrogen)11Infants below the age of six months who drink water containing nitrite in excess of the MCL could become seriously ill and, if untreated, may die. Symptoms include shortness of breath and blue-baby syndrome.Runoff from fertilizer use; leaching from septic tanks, sewage; erosion of natural deposits
Selenium0.050.05Hair or fingernail loss; numbness in fingers or toes; circulatory problems Discharge from petroleum refineries; erosion of natural deposits; discharge from mines
Thallium0.00050.002Hair loss; changes in blood; kidney, intestine, or liver problems Leaching from ore-processing sites; discharge from electronics, glass, and drug factories

Contaminant
MCLG1
MCL/TT1
Potential Health Effects
Sources
AcrylamidezeroTT9Nervous system or blood problems; increased risk of cancerAdded to water during sewage/wastewater treatment
Alachlorzero0.002Eye, liver, kidney or spleen problems; anemia; increased risk of cancer Runoff from herbicide used on row crops
Atrazine0.0030.003Cardiovascular system or reproductive problemsRunoff from herbicide used on row crops
Benzenezero0.005Anemia; decrease in blood platelets; increased risk of cancer Discharge from factories; leaching from gas storage tanks and landfills
Benzo(a)pyrene (PAHs)zero0.0002Reproductive difficulties; increased risk of cancer Leaching from linings of water storage tanks and distribution lines
Carbofuran0.040.04Problems with blood, nervous system, or reproductive systemLeaching of soil fumigant used on rice and alfalfa
Carbontetrachloridezero0.005Liver problems; increased risk of cancer Discharge from chemical plants and other industrial activities
Chlordanezero0.002Liver or nervous system problems; increased risk of cancer Residue of banned termiticide
Chlorobenzene0.10.1Liver or kidney problems Discharge from chemical and agricultural chemical factories
2,4-D0.070.07Kidney, liver, or adrenal gland problemsRunoff from herbicide used on row crops
Dalapon0.20.2Minor kidney changesRunoff from herbicide used on rights of way
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)zero0.0002Reproductive difficulties; increased risk of cancer Runoff/leaching from soil fumigant used on soybeans, cotton, pineapples, and orchards
o-Dichlorobenzene0.60.6Liver, kidney, or circulatory system problemsDischarge from industrial chemical factories
p-Dichlorobenzene0.0750.075Anemia; liver, kidney or spleen damage; changes in blood Discharge from industrial chemical factories
1,2-Dichloroethanezero0.005Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories
1,1-Dichloroethylene0.0070.007Liver problems Discharge from industrial chemical factories
cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene0.070.07Liver problemsDischarge from industrial chemical factories
trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene0.10.1Liver problemsDischarge from industrial chemical factories
Dichloromethanezero0.005Liver problems; increased risk of cancer Discharge from drug and chemical factories
1,2-Dichloropropanezero0.005Increased risk of cancer Discharge from industrial chemical factories
Di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate0.40.4Weight loss, liver problems, or possible reproductive difficulties.Discharge from chemical factories
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalatezero0.006Reproductive difficulties; liver problems; increased risk of cancer Discharge from rubber and chemical factories
Dinoseb0.0070.007Reproductive difficultiesRunoff from herbicide used on soybeans and vegetables
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD)zero0.00000003Reproductive difficulties; increased risk of cancer Emissions from waste incineration and other combustion; discharge from chemical factories
Diquat0.020.02Cataracts Runoff from herbicide use
Endothall0.10.1Stomach and intestinal problems Runoff from herbicide use
Endrin0.0020.002Liver problemsResidue of banned insecticide
EpichlorohydrinzeroTT9Increased cancer risk, and over a long period of time, stomach problemsDischarge from industrial chemical factories; an impurity of some water treatment chemicals
Ethylbenzene0.70.7Liver or kidneys problemsDischarge from petroleum refineries
Ethylene dibromidezero0.00005Problems with liver, stomach, reproductive system, or kidneys; increased risk of cancerDischarge from petroleum refineries
Glyphosate0.70.7Kidney problems; reproductive difficulties Runoff from herbicide use
Heptachlorzero0.0004Liver damage; increased risk of cancer Residue of banned termiticide
Heptachlor epoxidezero0.0002Liver damage; increased risk of cancer Breakdown of heptachlor
Hexachlorobenzenezero0.001Liver or kidney problems; reproductive difficulties; increased risk of cancer Discharge from metal refineries and agricultural chemical factories
Hexachlorocyclopentadiene0.050.05Kidney or stomach problems Discharge from chemical factories
Lindane0.00020.0002Liver or kidney problems Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cattle, lumber, gardens
Methoxychlor0.040.04Reproductive difficulties Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on fruits, vegetables, alfalfa, livestock
Oxamyl (Vydate)0.20.2Slight nervous system effects Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on apples, potatoes, and tomatoes
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)zero0.0005Skin changes; thymus gland problems; immune deficiencies; reproductive or nervous system difficulties; increased risk of cancerRunoff from landfills; discharge of waste chemicals
Pentachlorophenolzero0.001Liver or kidney problems; increased cancer riskDischarge from wood preserving factories
Picloram0.50.5Liver problems Herbicide runoff
Simazine0.0040.004Problems with bloodHerbicide runoff
Styrene0.10.1Liver, kidney, or circulatory system problemsDischarge from rubber and plastic factories; leaching from landfills
Tetrachloroethylenezero0.005Liver problems; increased risk of cancerDischarge from factories and dry cleaners
Toluene11Nervous system, kidney, or liver problemsDischarge from petroleum factories
Toxaphenezero0.003Kidney, liver, or thyroid problems; increased risk of cancer Runoff/leaching from insecticide used on cotton and cattle
2,4,5-TP (Silvex)0.050.05Liver problems Residue of banned herbicide
1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene0.070.07Changes in adrenal glandsDischarge from textile finishing factories
1,1,1-Trichloroethane0.200.2Liver, nervous system, or circulatory problems Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories
1,1,2-Trichloroethane0.0030.005Liver, kidney, or immune system problemsDischarge from industrial chemical factories
Trichloroethylenezero0.005Liver problems; increased risk of cancer Discharge from metal degreasing sites and other factories
Vinyl chloridezero0.002Increased risk of cancerLeaching from PVC pipes; discharge from plastic factories
Xylenes (total)1010Nervous system damage Discharge from petroleum factories; discharge from chemical factories

Contaminant
MCLG1
MCL/TT1
Potential Health Effects
Sources
Alpha particlesnone715 pCi/LIncreased risk of cancerErosion of natural deposits of certain minerals that are radioactive and may emit a form of radiation known as alpha radiation
Beta particles and photon emittersnone74 millirems/yrIncreased risk of cancerDecay of natural and man-made deposits of certain minerals that are radioactive and may emit forms of radiation known as photons and beta radiation
Radium 226 and Radium 228 (combined)none75 pCi/LIncreased risk of cancerErosion of natural deposits
Uraniumzero30 ug/LIncreased risk of cancer, kidney toxicityErosion of natural deposits
1:Definitions:
  • Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) - The highest level of a contaminant that is allowed in drinking water. MCLs are set as close to MCLGs as feasible using the best available treatment technology and taking cost into consideration. MCLs are enforceable standards.
  • Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) - The level of a contaminant in drinking water below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MCLGs allow for a margin of safety and are non-enforceable public health goals.
  • Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level (MRDL) - The highest level of a disinfectant allowed in drinking water. There is convincing evidence that addition of a disinfectant is necessary for control of microbial contaminants.
  • Maximum Residual Disinfectant Level Goal (MRDLG) - The level of a drinking water disinfectant below which there is no known or expected risk to health. MRDLGs do not reflect the benefits of the use of disinfectants to control microbial contaminants.
  • Treatment Technique - A required process intended to reduce the level of a contaminant in drinking water.

2:Units are in milligrams per liter (mg/L) unless otherwise noted. Milligrams per liter are equivalent to parts per million.

3: EPA's surface water treatment rules require systems using surface water or ground water under the direct influence of surface water to (1) disinfect their water, and (2) filter their water or meet criteria for avoiding filtration so that the following contaminants are controlled at the following levels:
  • Cryptosporidium: (as of1/1/02 for systems serving >10,000 and 1/14/05 for systems serving <10,000) 99% removal.
  • Giardia lamblia: 99.9% removal/inactivation
  • Viruses: 99.99% removal/inactivation
  • Legionella: No limit, but EPA believes that if Giardia and viruses are removed/inactivated, Legionella will also be controlled.
  • Turbidity: At no time can turbidity (cloudiness of water) go above 5 nephelolometric turbidity units (NTU); systems that filter must ensure that the turbidity go no higher than 1 NTU (0.5 NTU for conventional or direct filtration) in at least 95% of the daily samples in any month. As of January 1, 2002, turbidity may never exceed 1 NTU, and must not exceed 0.3 NTU in 95% of daily samples in any month.
  • HPC: No more than 500 bacterial colonies per milliliter.
  • Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment (Effective Date: January 14, 2005); Surface water systems or (GWUDI) systems serving fewer than 10,000 people must comply with the applicable Long Term 1 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule provisions (e.g. turbidity standards, individual filter monitoring, Cryptosporidium removal requirements, updated watershed control requirements for unfiltered systems).
  • Filter Backwash Recycling; The Filter Backwash Recycling Rule requires systems that recycle to return specific recycle flows through all processes of the system's existing conventional or direct filtration system or at an alternate location approved by the state.

4:More than 5.0% samples total coliform-positive in a month. (For water systems that collect fewer than 40 routine samples per month, no more than one sample can be total coliform-positive per month.) Every sample that has total coliform must be analyzed for either fecal coliforms or E. coli if two consecutive TC-positive samples, and one is also positive for E.coli fecal coliforms, system has an acute MCL violation.

5:Fecal coliform and E. coli are bacteria whose presence indicates that the water may be contaminated with human or animal wastes. Disease-causing microbes (pathogens) in these wastes can cause diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches, or other symptoms. These pathogens may pose a special health risk for infants, young children, and people with severely compromised immune systems.

6:Although there is no collective MCLG for this contaminant group, there are individual MCLGs for some of the individual contaminants:
  • Trihalomethanes: bromodichloromethane (zero); bromoform (zero); dibromochloromethane (0.06 mg/L). Chloroform is regulated with this group but has no MCLG.
  • Haloacetic acids: dichloroacetic acid (zero); trichloroacetic acid (0.3 mg/L). Monochloroacetic acid, bromoacetic acid, and dibromoacetic acid are regulated with this group but have no MCLGs.

7:MCLGs were not established before the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Therefore, there is no MCLG for this contaminant.

8:Lead and copper are regulated by a Treatment Technique that requires systems to control the corrosiveness of their water. If more than 10% of tap water samples exceed the action level, water systems must take additional steps. For copper, the action level is 1.3 mg/L, and for lead is 0.015 mg/L.

9:Each water system must certify, in writing, to the state (using third-party or manufacturer's certification) that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used in drinking water systems, the combination (or product) of dose and monomer level does not exceed the levels specified, as follows:
  • Acrylamide = 0.05% dosed at 1 mg/L (or equivalent)
  • Epichlorohydrin = 0.01% dosed at 20 mg/L (or equivalent)

Contaminant
Standard
Aluminum0.05 to 0.2 mg/L
Chloride250 mg/L
Color15 (color units)
Copper1.0 mg/L
Corrosivitynoncorrosive
Fluoride2.0 mg/L
Foaming Agents0.5 mg/L
Iron0.3 mg/L
Manganese0.05 mg/L
Odor3 threshold odor number
pH6.5-8.5
Silver0.10 mg/L
Sulfate250 mg/L
Total Dissolved Solids500 mg/L
Zinc5 mg/L

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